"Samantha Samajam is a non-political, non-profit, religious, cultural, and charitable organization in order to create better understanding among its members and others and to enhance their social and cultural life based on the traditional ways of life and values of the Samantha Community (Nedungadi, Erady, Thirumulpad, Vellodi, Kartha, etc)."
Any person belonging to the SAMANTHA community by birth, marriage or otherwise, and who subscribes to the ideals of the Samajam is eligible for membership.
Kerala historically known as Keralam, is an Indian state in South India on the Malabar Coast. It was formed on 1 November 1956 following the States Reorganisation Act by combining Malayalam-speaking regions, spread over 38,863 km2, it is bordered by Karnataka to the north and northeast, Tamil Nadu to the east and south, and the Lakshadweep Sea to the west. With 33,387,677 inhabitants as per the 2011 Census, Malayalam is the most widely spoken language and is also the official language of the state.
The region has been a prominent spice exporter since 3000 BCE, the Chera Dynasty was the first prominent kingdom based in Kerala, though it frequently struggled against attacks by the neighbouring Cholas and Pandyas. In the 15th century, the spice trade attracted Portuguese traders to Kerala, after independence, Travancore and Cochin joined the Republic of India and Travancore-Cochin was given the status of a state in 1949.
In 1956, Kerala state was formed by merging Malabar district, Travancore-Cochin, Hinduism is practised by more than half of the population, followed by Islam and Christianity. The culture is a synthesis of Aryan and Dravidian cultures, developed over millennia, under influences from other parts of India, the production of pepper and natural rubber contributes significantly to the total national output.
In the agricultural sector, coconut, tea, coffee, cashew, the states coastline extends for 595 kilometres, and around 1.1 million people in the state are dependent on the fishery industry which contributes 3% to the states income. The state has the highest media exposure in India with newspapers publishing in nine languages, mainly English, Kerala is one of the prominent tourist destinations of India, with backwaters, beaches, Ayurvedic tourism and tropical greenery as its major attractions.
The name Kerala has an uncertain etymology, One popular theory derives Kerala from Kera and alam is land, thus land of coconuts, this also happens to be a nickname for the state due to abundance of coconut trees and its use by the locals. The word Kerala is first recorded in a 3rd-century BCE rock inscription left by the Maurya emperor Ashoka, the inscription refers to the local ruler as Keralaputra, or son of Chera. This contradicts the theory that Kera is from coconut tree, at that time, one of three states in the region was called Cheralam in Classical Tamil, Chera and Kera are variants of the same word. The word Cheral refers to the oldest known dynasty of Kerala kings and is derived from the Proto-Tamil-Malayalam word for lake, the earliest Sanskrit text to mention Kerala is the Aitareya Aranyaka of the Rigveda. It is also mentioned in the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, the two Hindu epics, the Skanda Purana mentions the ecclesiastical office of the Thachudaya Kaimal who is referred to as Manikkam Keralar, synonymous with the deity of the Koodalmanikyam temple.
Keralam may stem from the Classical Tamil cherive-alam or chera alam, the Greco-Roman trade map Periplus Maris Erythraei refers to Keralaputra as Celobotra. According to Hindu mythology, the lands of Kerala were recovered from the sea by the warrior sage Parasurama. Parasurama threw his axe across the sea, and the water receded as far as it reached, according to legend, this new area of land extended from Gokarna to Kanyakumari.
The land which rose from sea was filled with salt and unsuitable for habitation, so Parasurama invoked the Snake King Vasuki, out of respect, Vasuki and all snakes were appointed as protectors and guardians of the land.
The Cheras were the principal ruling dynasty of the present-day state of Kerala and to a lesser extent, parts of Tamil Nadu in South India. Along with the Ay kingdom and the Ezhimala kingdom, they formed the kingdoms of Kerala in the early years of the Christian Era. The origins of the dynasty are unclear and it is understood that they were speakers of Proto-Tamil-Malayalam while some being practitioners of literary writing in Old Tamil. In fact, most of their history is reconstructed from the body of known as the Sangam literature written in Old Tamil around the 3rd century CE. While Pliny and Ptolemy refer to the Cheras as Calobotras, the Periplus refers to them as the Keprobotras, the earliest Sanskrit works which refer to the Cheras and Kerala is probably the Aitreya Aranyaka. It refers to the land as Chera-pada - and as one of the three peoples who did not follow some ancient injunctions, there are also brief references by Katyanana, Patanjali and Kautilya, however Panini does not mention of the land.
The Tamil works collectively known as the Sangam literature form one of the most important sources for a detailed history of the Cheras. These works roughly span the period 300 BCE to 300 CE, among them, the most important sources for the Cheras are the Pattittupattu, the Agananuru, the Purananuru and the Silappatikaram. By the early centuries of the Common Era, civil society, the location of the Chera capital is generally assumed to be at modern Karur.
The Cheras were in conflict with the neighbouring Cholas and Pandyas. The Cheras are said to have defeated the armies of the Pandyas. They also made battles with the Kadambās of Banavasi and the Yavanas on the Indian coast, after the 2nd century CE, the Cheras power decayed rapidly with the decline of the lucrative trade with the Romans. Sangam literature describes a line of Chera rulers dated to the first few centuries CE. It records the names of the kings, the princes, the internal chronology of this literature is still far from settled, and at present a connected account of the history of the period cannot be derived. Uthiyan Cheralathan, Nedum Cheralathan and Senguttuvan Chera are some of the referred to in the Sangam poems.
Senguttuvan Chera, the most celebrated Chera king, is famous for the legends surrounding Kannagi, the Chera kingdom owed its importance to trade with West Asia, Greece and Rome. The Later Cheras ruled from the 9th century, little is known about the Cheras between the two dynasties. The second dynasty, Kulasekharas ruled from a city on the banks of River Periyar called Mahodayapuram, the Chera rulers of Venad, based at the port Quilon in southern Kerala, trace their relations back to the later/second Cheras
Shoranur is a town and a municipality located in the Palakkad district, in the Indian state of Kerala, located on the banks of the Bharathapuzha River. Shoranur Junction Railway Station is the largest Railway Station in Kerala, shornur is named in revenue records as ‘Chiramannur/ Cheramannur’ and in railway records ‘Cherumannur’. This name Chiramannur might have derived from the relation of this place to Bharathapuzha, shoranur is located at 10. 77°N76. 28°E /10.77,76.28. It has an elevation of 49 metres.
This place was part of the Valluvanad Swaroopam Dynasty. On the west, it was bounded by the Arabian Sea at the port Ponnani, according to local legends, the last Later Chera ruler gave a vast extension of land in South Malabar to one of their governors, Valluvakkonithiri and left for a hajj. The Valluvakkonithiri was also given last Later Chera rulers shield, not surprisingly, the Vellatiri rajas were hereditary enemies of the Samoothiri. Valluvanad is famous for the Mamankam festivals, held once in 12 years, by the late 18th century, Vellatiri or Walluwanad proper was the sole remaining territory of the Walluvanad raja, who once exercised suzerain rights over a large portion of Southern Malabar.
Shornur became a municipality in 1978 and is divided into 33 electoral wards, National Highway No.544 connects to Coimbatore and Bangalore. Other parts of Kerala is accessed through National Highway No.66 going through Thrissur, calicut International Airport, Cochin International Airport and Coimbatore Airport are the nearest airports. Shoranur Junction railway station is the nearest major railway station, shornur Junction Valluvanad Palakkad district Kulapully
Samoothiri of Kozhikode is the hereditary royal title used by the Hindu Eradi Nair rulers of the medieval Kingdom of Kozhikode on the Malabar Coast. The Samoodiris ruled for almost six centuries, between c. 12th and 18th century AD based at the city of Kozhikode, one of the important trading centres in southern India.
The Portuguese trader and navigator Vasco da Gama visited Kozhikode in 1498, the Eradis with their original base at Nediyiruppu and were land-locked and sought an outlet to the Arabian Sea. The Eradis subsequently moved their capital to the port of Kozhikode, according to K. V. Krishna Ayyar, a historian, the city of Kozhikode was founded on a marshy tract along the Malabar coast in the 11th century AD. During Classical antiquity and the Middle Ages, Kozhikode was dubbed the City of Spices for its role as the major trading point of eastern spices, the name Kozhikode is thought to be derived from Koyil and Kota meaning Fortified Palace. Others have called the city by different names, the Arabs called it Kalikooth, Tamils called the city Kallikkottai, for the Chinese it was Kalifo. The name of the famous fine variety of cotton cloth called Calico that was exported from the port is also thought to have derived from Kozhikode.
Other seats of the Samoothiri were Ponnani, Trichur and Cranganore, five Places of Dignity existed in Kozhikode, each with its own separate property enjoyed in succession by the senior members of the three Royal Branches of the family. The Samoothiris family, being Eradis are connected to several other Eradi clans who are resident in Nilambur, Ponnani, the first Place of Dignity was the Samoothiri himself The second in line successor to the throne is known as the Eralppad and his official seat was in Karimpuzha.
This area was annexed from Valluvanad in the leadership of the then Eralppad in the first half of the 14th century, the Samoothiri claimed to be the paramount sovereign over Payyormala, Pulavayi, Beypore, Parappanad, Tanore, Talapalli, Chavakkad and Kavalappara. Calicut had also taken possession of sovereignty over Kollangodu, Kotuvayur, the chief ports under direct control were Putuppattanam, Pantalayani Kollam, Calicut, Tanur, Ponnani, Chetwai and Cranganore.
According to tradition Kozhikode State was founded around 826 AD as Nediyirippu Swarūpam, the city of Kozhikode was founded in 1026. Between 27 April 1766 and 1792 the state was annexed by the Mysore Kingdom, on 18 Aug 1792 it became a princely state under British protectorate. The territory was annexed by the British Raj on 15 November 1806, famous legends such as The Origin of Kerala tell the establishment of a local ruling family at Nediyiruppu, near present-day Kondotty by two young brothers belonging to the Nair Eradi clan. The brothers, Manikkan and Vikraman were the most trusted generals in the army of the Cheras, however, during the legendary partition of Chera Kingdom, the king didn’t give any land to these two brothers. Due to his feeling of guilt, the later gave his personal sword and his favorite prayer conch to his general. So the general conquered neighboring states and created a kingdom for himself. As a token of his respect to the Chera king, he adopted the logo of two crossed swords, with a conch in the middle and a lighted lamp above it
Palakkad District is one of the 14 districts of the Indian state of Kerala. The city of Palakkad is the district headquarters, the district is 24. 4% urbanised according to the census of 2011. The district is nicknamed the granary of Kerala and Rice bowl of Kerala, in earlier times, Palakkad was also known as Palakkattussery.
Palakkad is the gateway to Kerala due to the presence of the Palakkad Gap, the total area of the district is 4,480 km2 which is 11. 5% of the states area which makes it the largest district of Kerala. Out of the area of 4,480 km2, about 1,360 km2 of land is covered by forests. The climate is pleasant for most part of the year, exception is on the summer months, there is sufficient rainfall and it receives more rainfall than the extreme southern districts of kerala. The district is blessed with many small and medium rivers, which are tributaries of the Bharathapuzha River, a number of dams have been built across these rivers, the largest being Malampuzha dam.
The largest in capacity is the Parambikulam Dam Taluks, Alathur, Chittur, Mannarkkad, Ottappalam, Palakkad. Members of Parliament, Palakkad - MB Rajesh Alathur – PK Biju Under the amended Indian Constitution, the headquarters of the District Panchayat is at Palakkad Municipal town. The District Panchayat office building is near the Civil Station, IIT Palakkad for Kerala started operations in its temporary campus at Kanjikode, Palakkad from 3 August 2015.
There are various industries in the district, the Public Sector companies and Instrumentation Limited have plants in Kanjikode, 12 kilometres from Palakkad town. Other large companies are the BPL group, Coca-Cola and Pepsi, there is an Industrial Area in Kanjikode with a number of medium industries. Palakkad is the one of the most agrarian districts in Kerala, Palakkad is particularly known for paddy cultivation.
Paddy is cultivated in around 83,998 Hectares in the district, Palakkad also occupies the first position in the state for the production of groundnut, tamarind, turmeric, tuber, vegetables, pulses, mango, banana, plantain and cotton. Rubber, coconut, areca nut, black pepper, etc. are also cultivated extensively like other parts of Kerala. According to the 2011 census Palakkad district has a population of 2,810,892 and this gives it a ranking of 138th in India. The district has a density of 627 inhabitants per square kilometre. Its population growth rate over the decade 2001–2011 was 7. 39%, Palakkad has a sex ratio of 1067 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 89. 32%